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Vim text editor is used for creating, editing and perform other operations in a text file. Common modes in Vim i.e.
- Normal Mode : Hit the Esc key to enter Normal mode.
- Command Mode : Type : in the normal mode to go to this mode.
- Insert Mode : Type i in the normal mode to go to insert mode.
.(dot) repeat last command.
Normal Mode Commands
- Show line number
- Copy text
Select text and press Ctrl + C
- Go to line number
For instance, if you wanted to go to line 14, could press Esc and then enter
- Search some text
Enter /pattern, replacing pattern with the text for which you want to search forward. For example, to find every instance of the word “blimp”, enter:
To search for word, enter
/\<word\>in Normal Mode.
\<means beginning of a word, and
\>means the end of a word. Enter n for next and N for previous search result.
- Search for text in the document, going backwards.
- Find text and replace
Search through the entire document for text and replace it with replacement text. To check the text before replacement, use below command
- Go go end of file
- Go to end of cursor
Command Mode Options
- :q! to quit without saving (short for :quit!)
- :wq to write and quit
- :wq! to write and quit even if file has only read permission (if file does not have write permission: force write)
- :x to write and quit (similar to :wq, but only write if there are changes)
- :qa to quit all (short for :quitall)
- :cq to quit without saving and make Vim return non-zero error (i.e. exit with error)
Navigating In File
- h moves the cursor one character to the left.
- j moves the cursor down one line.
- k moves the cursor up one line.
- l moves the cursor one character to the right.
- 0 moves the cursor to the beginning of the line.
- $ moves the cursor to the end of the line.
- w move forward one word.
- b move backward one word.
- G move to the end of the file.
- gg move to the beginning of the file.
Prefacing a movement command with a number will execute that movement multiple times. So, if you want to move up six lines, enter 6k and Vim will move the cursor up six lines.
Editing File Content
- u – Undo last change
- U – Undo all changes to the entire line
- o – Open a new line (goes into insert mode)
- dd – Delete line. 3dd will delete 3 lines.
- D – Delete contents of line after the cursor
- C – Delete contents of a line after the cursor and insert new text. Press ESC key to end insertion.
- dw – Delete word. 4dw will delete 4 words
- d$ – Delete to end of line
- d^ (d caret) – Delete to beginning of line
- cw – Change word
- x – Delete character at the cursor
- r – Replace character
- R – Overwrite characters from cursor onward
- s – Substitute one character under cursor continue to insert
- S – Substitute entire line and begin to insert at the beginning of the line
- ~ – Change case of individual character
Copying And Pasting
- v – Select and highlight one character at a time.
- V – Select highlight one line at a time.
- Ctrl-v : Highlight by columns.
- p : paste text after the current line.
- P : paste text on the current line.
To create a new file, and save content
- Type vim filename (create a file named filename)
- Hit i ( switch to insert mode)
- Enter text
- Hit Esc key (switch back to normal mode)
- Type :wq (write file and exit vim)